Asthma is assessed in two ways:
It is assessed by checking your symptoms and issues in the day, when you are doing things or exercising o sleeping and whether you need the blue inhaler of have wheeze frequently. If this is the case the asthma is not well controlled.
There is a different questionnaire which we sometimes use for younger people.
2- Peak Flow readings
Asthma causes a tightness of the airways and makes it hard to breath out fast.
A peak flow reading which allows us to see how hard you can blow out from a full breath in. It is always the best of 3 readings.
It may be that your technique is poor and the readings are not accurate reflection of your ability to blow out.
As the natural size of the airway changes according to the time of day it is imprtant that you note whether it is an am, lunch or evening reading. COPD causes a more flat variation.
How to measure your peak flow
The first time your peak flow is measured, you’ll be taught how to do it by a doctor or nurse. After this they may advise you to carry out the test regularly at home using your own peak flow meter.
To measure your peak flow:
- find a comfortable position, either sitting or standing
- reset your peak flow meter so the pointer is pushed back to the first line of the scale – this is usually 60
- hold the peak flow meter so it’s horizontal and make sure that your fingers are not obstructing the measurement scale
- breathe in as deeply as you can and place your lips tightly around the mouthpiece
- breathe out as quickly and as hard as you can
- when you’ve finished breathing out, make a note of your reading
This should be repeated 3 times, and the highest of the 3 measurements should be recorded as your peak flow score.
If you’re monitoring your asthma at home, you may have a diary or chart to record your score.
You can download a peak flow diary (PDF, 2.2Mb) from the Asthma UK website if you don’t have one.
There are predicted peak flow charts which give an indication of what you should be compared with your sex and height.
Actions If not controlled
Monitor asthma control at every review. If control is suboptimal:
- confirm using prescribed treatment in line with the recommendations on assessing adherence in the NICE guideline on medicines adherence
- review inhaler technique. A spacer can help with the medicine reaching the lungs if the coordination of releasing the gas in some inhalers and the timing of breathing in is poor. Poor technique can mean just 5% reaches the lungs versus 15% with a good technique
- review if treatment needs to be changed
- ? occupational asthma (see recommendation 1.1.10) and/or other triggers, if relevant.
If your asthma is not well controlled, checking your technique is important.
Inhaler technique – see below or
If it is a poor technique, then learning the correct technique or using a spacer (if a pressurised inhaler is being used) to ensure the medicine is going into your lungs.
Alternatively a change of device may be suggested.
If your technique is fine and you are not controlled changing the amount or type of medicine is the next step.
Sometimes other reasons may cause you to feel short of breath e.g. weight, anaemia, heart problems
This information lets us make a care plan –
Within a self-management programme, there may be an increased dose of steroids for 7 days to adults (aged 17 and over) who are using an steroid in a single inhaler, when asthma control deteriorates. This my be if there is isolated wheeze without signs of infection. When increasing ICS treatment:
- we consider quadrupling the regular ICS dose
- not exceed the maximum licensed daily doseOtherwise we may feel steroid (prednisolone tablets) are necessary if your asthma is poorly controlled.
THE MEDICINES THAT ARE GIVEN ARE PRESCRIBED ACCORDING TO THE SEVERITY OF YOUR CONDITION
AND THE RISKS VS BENFITS OF THE MEDICATION
Salbutamol\Ventolin (occasionally short acting ipratropium is used)
Infrequent, short-lived wheeze SABA as required 1st choice: Salbutamol MDI 100 micrograms/ inhalation: 2 puffs as required +/- spacer
ICS doses and their pharmacological strengths vary across different formulations. In general, people with asthma should use the smallest doses of ICS that provide optimal control for their asthma, in order to reduce the risk of side effects.
- less than or equal to 400 micrograms budesonide or equivalent would be considered a low dose
- more than 400 micrograms to 800 micrograms budesonide or equivalent would be considered a moderate dose
- more than 800 micrograms budesonide or equivalent would be considered a high dose.
For children and young people aged 16 and under:
- less than or equal to 200 micrograms budesonide or equivalent would be considered a paediatric low dose
- more than 200 micrograms to 400 micrograms budesonide or equivalent would be considered a paediatric moderate dose
- more than 400 micrograms budesonide or equivalent would be considered a paediatric high dose.
Mixed Preventers(steroid) with Long acting relievers (instead of Preventers)
Low dose steroid
DuoResp Spiromax 160/4.5, 1 dose BD VIDEO
Medium dose steroid
Fostair® 100/6 MDI +/- spacer or NEXThaler 2 puffs BD (£356)
Flutiform® 125/5 MDI +/- spacer 2 puffs BD (£340)
Symbicort® 200/6 turbohaler 2 doses BD (£340)
DuoResp Spiromax 160/4.5, 2 doses BD (£339)
Maintenance and reliever therapies (SMART / MART):
• Symbicort® , Fostair® or DuoResp® can be used for both maintenance and relief medication instead of a separate
short – acting beta-agonist inhaler for selected patients who have seen a benefit with a long acting beta agonist,
but are still not controlled following initial add-on therapy.
Use of the reliever inhaler is then discouraged under normal circumstances